UK Starch Raw Materials
The most commonly used sources of starch in the UK are cereal crops (mainly maize and wheat , but roots and tubers (such as potato and cassava) are also used.
Maize kernels contain approximately 60% starch, 11% fibres, 8% protein and 4% oil,with the remainder being water and mineral salts. Wheat kernels are made up of 52% starch, 9% fibres, 12% protein and 23% bran. Potatoes contain around 20% starch, 2% fibres and 1% protein. Cassava contains around 32% starch, 1% fibres and 1% protein.
Starch from different sources may vary with regard to several characteristics. These include the shape and size of starch granules, and the composition of starch granules (relative concentrations of amylose and amylopectin, phosphorus and lipid content). Maize and wheat starches are similar in many respects, they have similar amylose:amylopectin ratios, approximating to 27:73. Potato starch has a lower amylose:amylopectin content (22:78) and a higher level of bound phosphorus, which allows its use in more specific applications.